Monday, May 25, 2020
The key to teaching any student is to get them to be actively engaged in the lesson. Textbooks and worksheets have been a staple in classrooms for decades, but they can be extremely boring. Not only are they boring to the students, but they are boring for the teachers as well. Technology has made teaching and learning more engaging, but sometimes that may not be enough either. Although its quite possible to have a paperless classroom that is filled with appealing technology, its not always possible to keep students actively engaged. Here are 5 teacher-tested tricks to help you improve a boring lesson and keep your students engaged. Give Student Choice When students are given a choice they feel like they have some kind of control over what they are learning. Try asking students what they want to read, or give them an option on how they want to go about learning a topic or completing a project. For example, lets say that students have to read a book for a lesson but its a boring book. Give them the option of watching the movie, or acting out the book as well. If you are conducting a lesson and you want students to complete a project about it, then give them a few options, it will make it more interesting if they decide how they will complete the task, versus having you tell them what to do. Add Music The benefits of music are amazing; increased test scores, higher IQ, improved language development, and thats just to name a few. If you find that your lesson is boring, add music to it. You can basically add music to anything if you really think about it. Lets say that you are in the middle of a multiplication lesson and you find that students are getting extremely restless, add some music. Have students clap, snap, or stomp as they are saying the times tables. Every time they count, 5, 10, 15, 20... they will add a sound. Music can help you get out of any boring lesson, and get students back on track. Use Food Who doesnt like food? Food is the perfect option to make your boring lesson, a little less boring. Heres how. We will take the same example from above. You are working on a multiplication lesson and students are doing their times tables. Instead of adding rhythm and music, you can add food. For example, lets say students are trying to figure out what 4 x 4 is. Give each student enough gummy bears, grapes, fish crackers, or whatever other food you want to use and have them use the food to figure out the answer. If they get the answer right, they get to eat the food. Everyones got to eat, so why not make this lesson during snack time? Use Real-World Examples There is no better way to keep students engaged then to relate the lesson to something that they already know. If you are teaching fifth graders a social studies lesson, then try having students create a song by changing the lyrics of a popular artist to correlate with what they are learning. Use technology, popular celebrities, video games, musicians, or whatever else that is currently relevant to children to keep them interested. If you are teaching students about Rosa Parks, then find a real-world example to compare her journey to. Use Objects By objects, we mean anything from a tiny manipulative like a coin, to a magazine or an everyday item like a paper towel roll or piece of fruit. Here are a few examples of how you can use objects to increase student engagement and make your lessons less boring.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Behind The Seams of Advertising We tend to run away from responsibilities, problems, and generally anything that we are trying to avoid. Advertisements, on the other hand, are something even the best marathoner cannot run away from. The Balega sock ad that was featured in the September 2016 issue of RunnerÃ¢â¬â¢s World Magazine goes beyond selling seams for the soles of our feet. This ad features a blown up picture of the sock with a contrasting black background to the purple, blue, and white colors of the cloth. The intricacy of each thread is also edited in a way that catches your eye, and creates the illusion that this sock is top-of-the-line quality. The ad strategically has highly contrasting colors to grab the viewers attention, and short, simple text so that the ad does not lose the viewerÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in reading about what these socks have to offer. Not only does the text state the quality material of the sock that reaps new personal records, but it also states that e ach purchase supports local and national African causes. This emotional appeal does not only implicitly sell the idea that you are a person of morals for contributing to a cause, it also sells the idea that you will be able to achieve your goals of becoming a better runner by purchasing their socks. Something as innocent as socks sell deeper meanings beneath their threads. Adding to itÃ¢â¬â¢s innocence, there is a faint glow of white behind the picture of the sock to give off a halo affect. The affectShow MoreRelatedMarketing And Marketing Environment : Marketing Strategy And Planning, Execution, And Operations And Infrastructure1057 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmarketers to play multiple roles such as that of a strategist, technologist, and scientist. Until now, marketers experienced issues when marketing ambitions and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s capabilities are not paralleled. This gap has served as the driving force behind an innovative approach to marketing which combines the function o f marketing with all other functions that it intersects with such as sales, finance, IT, etc. This, however, presents problems such as break downs in communication, stalled processesRead MoreHarmful Effects On The Environment And Surrounding Agricultural Lands Are The Negative Externality Effects Associated With Coal Seam Gas1691 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessurrounding agricultural lands are the negative externality effects associated with coal-seam gas. This stems from problems such as the exhaustion and/or contamination of clean water resources. 1b) As seen from figure one, negative externality creates a social marginal cost that is substantially higher than the actual level of coal-seam gas mining (private marginal cost). 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Settling down into a resting position, the bark of the tree that she has sat in front of has uncomfortably rested directly behind the trail of her spine, although causing her slight discomfort, it is barely noticeable as she sharply fixates her attention to one of sounds. In an excessively generous way ahead of her, somewhere in the distance Avory is able to briefly as wellRead MoreSpeedo Innovation5178 Words Ã |Ã 21 Pagesoverall U.S. swimwear market is $4.3 billion wholesale, according to market researcher the NPD Group. If you want the LZR, get ready to pay between $290 and $550 per suit when it becomes available to the general public in late June. Making Up for a Big Behind A look at how Speedo s Aqualab teamÃ¢â¬âwhich includes garment engineers, materials experts, and product developersÃ¢â¬âcreated LZR reflects not only how swimsuit design has advanced along with technology but also the cutthroat competition that propelsRead MoreSpeedo Innovation5178 Words Ã |Ã 21 Pagesoverall U.S. swimwear market is $4.3 billion wholesale, according to market researcher the NPD Group. If you want the LZR, get ready to pay between $290 and $550 per suit when it becomes available to the general public in late June. Making Up for a Big Behind A look at how Speedos Aqualab teamÃ¢â¬âwhich includes garment engineers, materials experts, and product developersÃ¢â¬âcreated LZR reflects not only how swimsuit design has advanced along with technology but also the cutthroat competition that propels companiesRead MoreEthical Proposal for Allsaints2978 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesclothes appear to be lopsided on their design, but it looks well worn on. Other values of differentiation in the market are some of the clothing can be worn in multiple ways, and have very interesting cuts with asymmetrical or uneven finishing, with seams in unexpected places 2.3 Interior and Exterior Design of the Store It looks like a warehouse and underground concert venue with all bare brick wall and poor wooden flood and also the signature shop front stacked floor to ceiling with vintage
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The usage, abuse, and sale of illegal drugs is an epidemic that has remained an unsolved problem of the United States. The biggest effort that the United States has launched in order to deal with rampancy of drug issues is the War on Drugs that was started by former president Richard Nixon. During its beginning, the War on Drugs was controversial due to the attitudes that were directed to drug users that were cultivated by the policies being set. In the present day, the War on Drugs is under scrutiny as being a trillion dollar failure. Those who advance that the War on Drugs was a failure in many regards are correct. Drug abuse, overdoses on drugs, and the availability of drugs is still a problem, if not more of a problem than it was in 1971. Undoubtedly, the amount of drug makers and sellers that have been arrested due to the War on Drugs has skyrocketed. Because of this feat that can be attributed to the policies developed from the War on Drugs, wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t the War on Dr ugs be a success? The answer is no because the War on Drugs hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t fully undertaken the most important aspect of warring against drugsÃ¢â¬âtargeting the conditions that breed drug users. United States law enforcement can send as many drug users and drug dealers as it can. Yet, the drug problem of America can never be properly addressed if the conditions that can lead one to use and sell drugs, poverty and broken family ties, are never attacked as they should be. Additionally, those who are in the cycleShow MoreRelatedMarijuana must Be Legalized941 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestypically thinks of the roaring twenties. This was when the government prohibited the sale of alcohol. Looking back through history, we see trends from then happening today with the prohibition of marijuana and other drugs. Many people have many opinions if marijuana should be legalized or not. 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It has been nothing but a waste of government funding, time, and manpower that can only be described as a dismal failure and should be repealed
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Identify and Critically reflect on a Personal Professional Practice experience of your choice that is different to the issue you covered in your semester topic presentation. The focus is on an issue that you believe may occur again during your transition to practice as a graduate registered nurse. Justify your selection of this topic area and its Importance. Answer: Horizontal violence (HV) is defined as an act of unwanted hostility or abuse occurring within the workplace (BecherVisovsky, 2012).Horizontal violence is a series of repeated conflicts that makes HV overwhelming, generating symptoms like depression and posttraumatic stress among the victims(BecherVisovsky, 2012). The phenomenon of HV is at times used interchangeably with the term lateral violence (Taylor,2016). When a nurse or a group of nurses expresses hostile or harmful behaviour toward a particular co-worker, then it is term as horizontal violence in nursing profession(Sheridan-Leos, 2008). The members of nursing profession belongs to oppressed group with the majority of the members are women. According to the theory of oppression, lack of power and lack of control over the work environment lead to the generation of HV within the profession of nursing (Johnston, Phanhtharath Jackson, 2009). In nursing profession the act of HV is complicated because HV is extensively ingrained in the workplace culture of nursing and thus the victim nurses who are experiencing or witnessing the same do not recognize it (Taylor,2016). HV which results out of cyclic acts of aggression towards the co-workers is also termed as workplace bullying. Here bullying means demeaning the employee, either publicly or privately. Here the main intension of the bullys is to cause psychological and physical stress to the victims (Vessey, DeMarcoDiFazio, 2011). Other behaviour that contributes horizontal violence include blaming, verbal fighting among the colleagues, criticizing, refusing to provide help, humiliation in a public place and undermining efforts (Dumont, Meisinger, Whitacre Corbin, 2012). Other threats are gossiping, isolation, threat, ignorance and making observable physical expression like rolling of eyes (Thomas Burk, 2009). HV perished dignity of an individual and this in turn is detrimental for the profession. HV has special implications over the students or the newly graduated nursing personnel who have mainly question regarding practical field of work and requires profession guidance in order to achieve their full potential in nursing profession. New graduate nurses who are the victims of HV face difficulties in achieving success due to complex workplace environmental conflict(Laschinger et al., 2010). Not only the team of newly graduates, HV hamper the equilibrium of nursing profession or the health care team. This damage is caused by ever widening rift between the nursing professionals or group of professionals. The effect of HV in turn indirectly affects the health and the quality of life of the patient (Roche et al., 2010). The victims of HV in nursing profession suffer from low self-esteem, anxiety, sleeping disorder and depression. All these side-effects are detrimental for nursing profession a nd effects the employee retention leading to poor patient : nurse ratio (Wilson et al., 2011; Weaver, 2013). This is due to the fact that the majority of the nurses who have become the victim of HV have considered leaving the profession and which have contributed to the shortage in national nursing. In the name of HV, important information related to patient care is either omitted or kept secret from the new attending graduate nurse. As a result, the victimised nurse falls in a poor position in front of the doctors and the family members of the patients. Not only this, patient, quality treatment and health is also compromised due to such acts. This negligence in patient care arising out of the lack of information may cost negatively to the patients, their family and the health care institute. Such condition may also inflict potential legal action against the guilty nurses and the overall condition can be staggering. Moreover, what more threatening is, HV has also inflicted suicidal behaviour. In spite to its wide spread detrimental effects, the majority of the incidence of HV remains unreported. Even with zero retaliation policies, victims are not aware of the appropriate steps to report against V. Moreover, the problem in employee retention and lack of quality care arising out of the HV has affected the health care institute financially. Moreover, this financial loss is further increased as a result of absenteeism, therapy for depression and anxiety and poor work performance. In this essay I will highlight a specific case of HV that I have experienced during my transition to practice as a graduate registered nurse under the 5Rs framework for reflection(Bain et al. 2002). Reporting: When I joined as a as a trainee nurse after by completion of graduate degree in nursing, I too became the victim of HV from my senior registered nurses refuse to corporate with me. I was attending a patient in a palliative care and the doctors asked me to replace his nasogastric tube. As a trainee nurse, I was not aware of the actual proceeding are the regulations that are required to be followed during the insertion of fine bore nasogastric tube. For obvious reasons, I was scared but when I approached by fellow colleagues, but they refuse to stretch their helping hands towards me. Since I was novice in this domain, the improper insertion of the tube caused aspiration associated dislodgement(Fine Bore Nasogastric Feeding Tubes for Adult Policy, 2017). The patient condition became extremely unstable and got further scared and then my seniors came in and controlled the entire situation. However, in return I got humiliation from the doctors, complains form the patient family and all these dragged my self-esteem to a negative parameter. Responding: This situation made me feel stupid and incapable. It destroyed my confidence to work as a nurse. I also felt isolated as none of my seniors approached me or helped me out when I was showcased for improper nasogastric tube insertion. I developed a fear of going to work as I was secretly ashamed of being bullied and at the same time confused as to how to fight back. I developed stress-related illness like nausea, headache, weight loss, depression, anxiety, insomnia, irritability and post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS)(Elena Losa Iglesias Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, 2012). Such conditions gradually became more severe when their act of bullying continued or rather say increased. Whenever I passed through corridor of any ward, I saw certain physical gestures like rolling of eyes or verbal abuse coming against me. This further made me more isolated and affected my self-esteem. Relating: As time passed and I gradually understood that the problem of HVmight have originated from individual factors, environmental factors and other organisational factors(Rocker, 2008). Here individual factors include mental illness and female gender workers. Workplace environment, lack of safety measures and working with hostile and violent patients and their family membersfall under poor environmental factors (Vessey, DeMarcoDiFazio, 2011). Organisational factors include nurse shortage due to understaffing, lack of adequate resources and poor workgroup(Katrinli et al., 2010). Moreover, what I felt is bullying behaviour that is prevalent among the nurses is a kind of learned process. For example, the new nursing practitioner may indulgein the act of bullying others, common among the veteran nurses, just to gel with them, contributing towards the continuation of HV among the nursing profession(Rocker, 2008). Reasoning:When I interacted with the other fellow trainee nursesand friends of mine who are serving as a traineeI discovered that actual incidence and the occurrence of the HV among the nursing profession is underreported and unrecognised(Rocker, 2008). However, according to the report published by Stagg et al., in the year 2011, HV is widespread among the nurses in Australia with an estimated percentage of 65 to 80%. My friends reported that they felt humiliated as they gradually began to assimilate these kinds of demeaning behaviours into the workplace. Moreover, me and my friends in nursing field felt leaving the profession altogether with an increased level of absenteeism in order to avoid uncomfortable situation. I also found that verbal abuse has more significant impacts on self-esteem than the physical abuse in the domain of HV. As a trainee, we do not have a defined and approved social role, neither a fixed salary and nor a dedicated bond with specific nursing work and hence we become an easy prey of verbal abuse that lowersour self-esteem and morale(MagnavitaHeponiemi, 2011). Reconstructing: What I felt during my transition to registered nurse and subsequent experience of HV is that it is the role of the experienced professional nurse to maintain and attain work environments in consistent with the professional values(BecherVisovsky, 2012). Here, the nurses or the matrons who are serving as the nursing leaders must come forward to prevent these unhealthy activities via providing proper support and education (Becher Visovsky, 2012). They must also support the trainee nurse or newly graduate nurse via giving periodic feedback about their performance so that they can work on their weak areas while providing opportunities for further professional development. Senior registered nurses must also hold them and their experienced peers accountable for modelling acceptable professional behaviour. When any one of the team displays unprofessional behaviour, a proper corrective plan must be instituted. Moreover, a proper plan must be initiated to revamp the entire nur sing culture that preaches and supports the act of HV. I also feel that while approaching complains or allegations regarding HV, the assigned nurse leader must try to maintain a strict objective stance and thereby assess all the related facts. These nurse leaders must also be accustomed or aware about the organisational policies and must take appropriate disciplinary actions when any act of HV is found threatening the overall integrity in the workplace. Health managers in the workplace must also participate in the HV education and must keep their employees alert about the occurrence of the HV and how to report against it. Managers can also generate awareness among the staffs via making them aware about the policies that govern the professional code of conduct of nursing in Australia so that they can feel empowered to take necessary actions against HV (BecherVisovsky, 2012). According to Huntington et al., 2011, poor staffing along with increased patient acuity and decrease in resour ces lead to upliftment of stress and conflict and so good ratio to nurse :patient will help in the reduction of the incidence of HV. Manager must also take active steps in proper employee recruitment and employee retention.Another important aspect which can put an end of the HV in nursing profession is proper communication between the employees. These can be done via educational workshops that will enhance awareness in the field of HV and will simultaneously improve positive communication, which will result in better workplace environment with reduction in vacancy rates along with decrease in the incidence of HV (Ceravolo et al., 2012). References Bain, J. D., Ballantyne, R., Mills, C., Lester, N. C. (2002).Reflecting on practice: Student teachers' perspectives. Post Pressed. Becher, J., Visovsky, C. (2012).Horizontal violence in nursing.Medsurg nursing,21(4), 210. Ceravolo, D. J., Schwartz, D. G., FOLTZ?RAMOS, K. M., Castner, J. (2012). Strengthening communication to overcome lateral violence.Journal of Nursing Management,20(5), 599-606. Dumont, C., Meisinger, S., Whitacre, M. J., Corbin, G. (2012).Nursing2012 horizontal violence survey report.Nursing2016,42(1), 44-49. Elena Losa Iglesias, M., Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, R. (2012). Prevalence of bullying at work and its association with self-esteem scores in a Spanish nurse sample.Contemporary nurse,42(1), 2-10. Fine Bore Nasogastric Feeding Tubes for Adult Policy. (2017) (pp. 1 to 8). Australia. Retrieved from https://www1.health.nsw.gov.au/pds/ActivePDSDocuments Huntington, A., Gilmour, J., Tuckett, A., Neville, S., Wilson, D., Turner, C. (2011). Is anybody listening? A qualitative study of nurses reflections on practice. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 20(9-10), 1413-1422 Johnston, M., Phanhtharath, P., Jackson, B. S. (2009).The bullying aspect of workplace violence in nursing.Critical Care Nursing Quarterly,32(4), 287-295. Katrinli, A., Atabay, G., Gunay, G., Cangarli, B. G. (2010).Nurses perceptions of individual and organizational political reasons for horizontal peer bullying.Nursing Ethics,17(5), 614-627. Laschinger, H. K. S., Grau, A. L., Finegan, J., Wilk, P. (2010). New graduate nurses experiences of bullying and burnout in hospital settings.Journal of advanced nursing,66(12), 2732-2742. Magnavita, N., Heponiemi, T. (2011).Workplace violence against nursing students and nurses: an Italian experience.Journal of Nursing Scholarship,43(2), 203-210. Roche, M., Diers, D., Duffield, C., Catling?Paull, C. (2010).Violence toward nurses, the work environment, and patient outcomes.Journal of Nursing Scholarship,42(1), 13-22. Rocker, C. F. (2008).Addressing nurse-to-nurse bullying to promote nurse retention.Online Journal of Issues in Nursing,13(3). Sheridan-Leos, N. (2008). Understanding lateral violence in nursing.Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing,12(3), 399. Stagg, S.J., Sheridan, D., Jones, R.A., Speroni, K.G. (2011).Evaluation of a workplace bullying cognitive rehearsal program in a hospital setting. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 42(9), 395-401. doi:10.3928/00220124-20110823-45 Taylor, R. (2016). Nurses Perceptions of Horizontal Violence.Global qualitative nursing research,3, 2333393616641002. Thomas, S. P., Burk, R. (2009).Junior nursing students' experiences of vertical violence during clinical rotations.Nursing outlook,57(4), 226-231. Vessey, J. A., DeMarco, R., DiFazio, R. (2011).Bullying, harassment and horizontal violence in the nursing workforce.Annual review of nursing research,28(1), 133-157. Weaver, K. B. (2013). The effects of horizontal violence and bullying on new nurse retention.Journal for nurses in professional development,29(3), 138-142. Wilson, B. L., Diedrich, A., Phelps, C. L., Choi, M. (2011).Bullies at work: the impact of horizontal hostility in the hospital setting and intent to leave.Journal of Nursing Administration,41(11), 453-458.
Saturday, April 11, 2020
Thomas More At the last debating whereof he made such arguments and reasons there against, that the King's demands were thereby overthrown. So that one of the King's privy chamber, named Mr. Tyler, being present thereat, brought word to the King out of the Parliament house, that a beardless boy had disappointed all his purposes. Whereupon the King conceiving great indignation towards him could not be satisfied until he had some way revenged it. And forasmuch as he nothing having, nothing could lose, his grace devised a causeless quarrel against his Father, keeping him in the Tower until he had paid him an hundred pounds fine. Shortly hereupon it fortuned that this Sir Thomas More coming in a suit to Dr. Fox, Bishop of Winchester, one of the King's privy council, they called him aside, and pretending great favour towards him, promised him that if he would be ruled by him, he would not fail but into the King's favour again to restore him, meaning, as it was after conjectured, to cause him thereby to confess his offence against the King, whereby his Highness might with better colour have occasion to revenge his displeasure against him. But when he came from the Bishop, he fell in communication with one Mr. Witford, his familiar friend, then chaplain to that Bishop and after a Father of Sion, and showed him what the Bishop had said unto him, desiring to have his advice therein, who for the passion of God prayed him in no wise to follow his counsel "for my Lord my Master (quoth he) to serve the King's turn will not stick to agree to his own father's death." So Sir Thomas More returned to the Bishop no more when Sir Thomas More had remained in the Tower a little more than a month, my wife, longing to see her father, by her earnest suit at length gat leave to go to him. At whose coming (after the seven psalms and litany said, which whensoever she came to him, ere he fell in talk of any worldly matters, he used accustomably to say with her) among other communication he said unto her, prolific letter writer Since More was a practising lawyer and politician for most of his adult life he was allowed to correspond with his eldest daughter Margaret Roper (who was also allowed to visit him in prison) Within two weeks of More's death (6 July 1535), an eye-witness account of More's final trial and execution written , for a different view of the relationships between the various accounts of More's execution.] More served Henry faithfully in some of the most trying times the English court has ever known, and when he refused to attend Anne Boleyn's coronation ceremony he knew what was in store. He was later requested to take an oath acknowledging Henry the supreme head of the Church in England, and when he (as a loyal Roman Catholic) refused he was tried and convicted of treason. This essay has indicated that the humanists were concerned with developing a noble style in their oral and written communication. They were also concerned with their style of behavior. They valued witty behavior, and especially a witty jest ; and they immensely admired a quality of polished urbanity when it was manifest in difficult situations. One way of summing this up would be to say that the humanists admired a man who never "lost his cool." According to William Roper, More's son-in-law and biographer, Sir Thomas More even quipped at the time of his death. To one of his attendants at the foot of the shaky scaffold More said, "I pray you, Master Lieutenant, see me safe up, and for my coming down let me shift for myself." And when the executioner begged his pardon, More embraced him and said to him "pluck up thy spirits, man, and be not afraid to do thine office." Finally, as he was laying his head upon the block, he begged the executioner stay until he had removed his beard, saying that it had never committed any treason. The execution of More in 1535 shocked and dismayed humanists throughout Europe. Their hopes blasted by nationalism, religious faction and royal pride, it became impossible for men like More and Erasmus, to prevail. The succeeding generation of humanists tended, like Francis Petrarch earlier, to be more cautious, more deferential to established power and doctrine. Sir Thomas More considered becoming a Carthusian monk, but chose instead the active life of law and public service. After
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Profile of Women in the United States in 2000 In March 2001, the U.S. Census Bureau observed Womens History Month by releasing a detailed set of statistics on women in the United States. The data came from the 2000 Decennial Census, the Current Population Survey of the year 2000, and the year 2000 Statistical Abstract of the United States. Education Equality 84% The percentage of women age 25 and over with a high school diploma or more, which equals the percentage for men. The college degree attainment gap between the sexes had not closed completely, but it was closing. In 2000, 24% of women age 25 and over had a bachelors degree or higher, compared with 28% of men. 30% The percentage of young women, ages 25 to 29, who had completed college as of 2000, which exceeded the 28% of their male counterparts who had done so. Young women also had higher high school completion rates than young men: 89% versus 87%. 56% The proportion of all college students in 1998 who were women. By2015, the U.S. Department of Education reported that more women than men were completing college. 57% The proportion of masters degrees awarded to women in 1997. Women also represented 56% of the people awarded bachelors degrees, 44% of the law degrees, 41% of the medical degrees and 41% of the doctorates. 49% The percentage of bachelors degrees awarded in business and management in 1997 that went to women. Women also received 54% of the biological and life sciences degrees. But Income Inequality RemainsÃ In 1998, the median yearly earnings of women 25 years and over who worked fulltime, year-round was $26,711, or just 73% of the $36,679 earned by their male counterparts. While both men and women with college degrees realize higher lifetime earnings, Ã men working fulltime, year-round consistently earned more than comparable women in each of the education levels: The median earnings of women with a high school diploma were $21,963, compared with $30,868 for their male counterparts.The median earnings of women with a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree were $35,408, compared with $49,982 for their male counterparts.The median earnings of women with a professional degree was $55,460, compared with $90,653 for their male counterparts. Earnings, Income, and Poverty $26,324 The 1999 median earnings of women working full-time, year-round. In March 2015, the U.S. Government Accountability Office reported that while the gap was closing, women still made less than men doing similar work. 4.9% The increase between 1998 and 1999 in the median income of family households maintained by women with no spouse present ($24,932 to $26,164). 27.8% The record-low poverty rate in 1999 for families made up of a female householder with no husband present. Jobs 61% The percentage of women age 16 and over in the civilian labor force in March 2000. The percentage for men was 74%. 57% The percentage of the 70 million women age 15 and over who worked at some point in 1999 that were full-time year-round workers. 72% The percentage of women age 16 and over in 2000 who worked in one of four occupational groups: administrative support, including clerical (24%); professional specialty (18%); service workers, except private household (16%); and executive, administrative and managerial (14%). Population Distribution 106.7 million The estimated number of women age 18 and over living in the United States as of Nov. 1, 2000. The number of men 18 and over was 98.9 million. Women outnumbered men in every age group, from ages 25 and over and up. There were 141.1 million females of all ages. 80 years The projected life expectancy for women in 2000, which was higher than the life expectancy for men (74 years.). Motherhood 59% The record-high percentage of women with infants under the age of 1 in 1998 who were in the labor force, almost double the 31% rate of 1976. This compares with 73% of mothers ages 15 to 44 in the labor force that same year who did not have infants. 51% The 1998 percentage of married-couple families with children in which both spouses worked. This is the first time since the Census Bureau started recording fertility information that these families were the majority of all married-couple families. The rate in 1976 was 33%. 1.9 The average number of children women 40 to 44 years old in 1998 had by the end of their childbearing years. This contrasts sharply with women in 1976, who averaged 3.1 births. 19% The proportion of all women ages 40 to 44 who were childless in 1998, up from 10 percent in 1976. During the same time, those with four or more children declined from 36 percent to 10 percent. Marriage and Family 51% The percentage of women 15 years old and over in 2000 who were married and living with their spouse. Of the rest, 25 percent had never married, 10%t were divorced, 2% were separated and 10 percent were widowed. 25.0 years The median age at first marriage for women in 1998, more than four years older than the 20.8 years just a generation ago (1970). 22% The proportion in 1998 of 30- to 34-year-old women who had never married triple the rate in 1970 (6 percent). Similarly, the proportion of never-married women increased from 5 percent to 14 percent for 35-to-39-year-olds over the period. 15.3 million The number of women living alone in 1998, double the number in 1970 7.3 million.The percentage of women who lived alone rose for almost every age group. The exception was those aged 65 to 74, where the percentage was statistically unchanged. 9.8 million The number of single mothers in 1998, an increase of 6.4 million since 1970. 30.2 million The number of households in 1998 about 3 in 10 maintained by women with no husband present. In 1970, there were 13.4 million such households, about 2 in 10. Sports and Recreation 135,000 The number of women taking part in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)-sanctioned sports during the 1997-98 school year; women constituted 4 in 10 participants in NCAA-sanctioned sports. The 7,859 NCAA-sanctioned womens teams exceeded the number of mens teams. Soccer had the most female athletes; basketball, the most womens teams. 2.7 million The number of girls taking part in high school athletic programs during the 1998-99 school year triple the number in 1972-73. Participation levels by boys remained about the same during this time frame, about 3.8 million in 1998-99. Computer Use 70% The percentage of women with access to a computer at home in 1997 who used it; the rate for men was 72%. The home computer-use gender gap between men and women has shrunk considerably since 1984 when mens home computer use was 20 percentage points higher than that of women. 57% The percentage of women who used a computer on the job in 1997, 13 percentage points higher than the percentage of men who did so. Voting 46% Among citizens, the percentage of women who voted in the 1998 mid-term congressional elections; that was better than the 45% of men who cast their ballots. This continued a trend that had started in 1986. The preceding facts came from the 2000 Current Population Survey, population estimates, and the 2000 Statistical Abstract of the United States. The data are subject to sampling variability and other sources of error.
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Inflation Control by Government of UK Economy - Essay Example The rate of overall fixed capital formation in the UK is depressed by the very low level of public investment. During the 1970s and much of the 1980s the UK endured persistently high inflation. Despite high levels of unemployment, wage increases in the 1980s exceeded productivity growth, provoking strong upward pressure on prices. The boom of the late 1980s created a new inflationary surge, painfully controlled only by high interest rates and the early 1990s recession. Since then, however, the UK's inflation performance has improved markedly. The government has preferred measure of inflation, the RPIX (which excludes mortgage interest payments), has fluctuated within a narrow range in recent years and even came in below the official central target of 2.5% in 1999-2001. Meanwhile, inflation as measured by the EU's harmonised index averaged just 1.2% over 2001, the lowest rate in the EU. Two aspects of the UK's recent inflation performance are worth recording, however. The first is that there has been a significant divergence since mid-1998 between goods and service sector inflation, with the latter accounting for most of the increase in the consumer price index. In fact, in many parts of the goods sector (notably clothing, footwear and audio-visual equipment); prices actually fell in 2000 and 2001. A second aspect worth noting is the sharp (and probably unsustainable) appreciation of sterling's trade-weighted exchange rate since 1996, which has exerted considerable downward pressure on import prices. This paper discusses the inflation control methodologies in United Kingdom from 1994 to 2004. It shall also discuss how UK has managed its inflation in the last few decades. The paper shall also provide recommendations for inflation control by effective governance. Historical Monetary and Fiscal policies of UK Monetary policy The UK has experimented with numerous frameworks for monetary policy over the past 15 years. In the 1980s, the Conservative government tried in vain to target various measures of the money supply, before deciding to target the exchange rate. After "tracking" the D-mark in the late 1980s, the UK joined the EU's exchange-rate mechanism (ERM) in October 1990, only to be ejected two years later, in September 1992, when speculative pressures forced sterling out of the ERM. Following its exit, the UK was one of the first OECD countries to adopt inflation control. An inflation target range of 1-4% was initially set, but responsibility for setting interest rates remained with the government. When the Labour government came to power in 1997, its first significant decision was to grant operational independence for setting interest rates to a newly constituted Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) within the Bank of England. The responsibility fo